The hype their Su-75 “Checkmate” and Su-57 aircraft at the Dubai Air Show, officials from Russia’s Sukhoi Design Bureau offered up bottles of a limited-edition Checkmate perfume. No fragrance, however, will mask how the Su-75 isn’t a light tactical fighter as advertized, but rather a medium-weight fighter-bomber similar to the F-16C.
Restricted by backward compitable electronics, all Russian-origin fighter jets are yet to have an operational active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, any kind of sensor fusion and modern avionics.
During a Moscow air show last summer, Russia rolled out a mockup of the Su-75, a multipurpose fighter-bomber designed to compete in the global marketplace—but only if it gets enough foreign orders to fund its manufacture. Rostec, Russia’s government arms production organization, is marketing it to any country that will listen to its pitch. Russian Deputy Prime Minister Yuri Borisov claims there is “an anchor customer” without naming it, but said it will be marketed to African nations, Vietnam, and India.
Currently, Russia does not have a 5th generation fighter. The purpose-built twin-engine Su-57 is still defined as a 4th generation in terms of performance.
Titanium and titanium forgings play an important role in aerostructures and engines, as they are resistant to galvanic corrosion (this occurs when two dissimilar materials are connected to each other). Russia imports most of its composites from Germany and France.
With the sanctions in place, Russia has struggled to procure semiconductors, an essential tool in the aviation industry, which powers the computers that modern jets are built around. Without semiconductors, the Su-75 program will not be able to progress. Russia is also unable to import high-tech machining equipment.
However, 19FortyFive says in its article that the Su-75 Checkmate has only one advantage at the moment – it uses equipment and components from the Su-57. That is, as the American online publication claims – it uses “recycled” research and development. The fighter relies on off-the-shelf components, “which could be critical to any effort to meet the Su-75’s short deadline.”
Under the current international sanctions regime, Russia is unable source high-tech semiconductors and chips from Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, United States and Europe.
One of the major composite manufacturer Siemens existed from Russia could force Russia suspend all repair work of civilians and military aircraft let alone produce new aircraft.
Without semiconductors and composites, Russian Su-57 and Su-75 are a pipe dream.
The sanctions on Rostec announced on June 28 build on previously announced sanctions against the state aerospace and defense conglomerate. The Treasury Department said that Rostec’s “management umbrella includes more than 800 entities across a wide range of sectors” and that all entities owned 50 percent or more by Rostec are blocked.
This includes United Aircraft Corporation, the maker of Russia’s MiG and Sukhoi fighter jets. The Treasury Department said this aims to “weaken Russia’s ability to continue its aerial assault on Ukraine.”
Rostec encompasses Russian technological, aerospace and military-industrial expertise. Rostec is a holding company with subsidiaries in the automotive, defense, aviation and metals industries. It leads Russia’s domestic defense production and facilitates foreign trade in defense, civilian and dual-purpose products.
OFAC says Rostec’s management umbrella comprises more than 800 entities in a wide range of sectors. All entities owned 50% or more by Rostec, directly or indirectly, are blocked, even if not identified by OFAC. Rostec is also sanctioned by Australia, Canada, the EU, New Zealand, Switzerland, and the UK.
Refer to US Treasury Sanctions Nearly 100 Targets in Putin’s War Machine for a comprehensive list of designated subsidiary companies, such as those associated with Irkut, Russian Electronics and Kamaz. General licenses and winding down dates are also listed.
Some of Rostec’s subsidiaries had already been added to OFAC’s SSI List in 2015, pursuant to Directive 3 of EO 13662.
Key Rostec holdings under sanctions
United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) is a holding company for Russian aircraft builders. UAC and its subsidiaries develop, produce, sell, modernize, and repair military aircraft. UAC includes the well-known military brands Sukhoi and MiG.
Tupolev is Russia’s leading designer and producer of strategic bombers and long-range aircraft. OFAC designated two Tupolev subsidiaries: KAPO-Avtotrans and KAPO-Zhilbitservis.
Irkut manufactures fighter jets for the Russian Federation’s military and does full-cycle military and civil aircraft production.
Taganrog Aviation Scientific-Technical Complex NAGM Beriev (TANTK) produces a variety of aircraft.
Flight Research Institute NA MM Gromov is a research and development center that includes ground and flight test complexes.
Ilyushin aviation complex under sanctions regime
Ilyushin Finance Company finances and delivers Russian civil aircraft to Russian and foreign airlines.
United Engine Corporation supplies engines for operational, tactical, transport, and training aircraft, and for air- and sea-based cruise missiles and space launch vehicles.
Tekhnodinamika is a designer and manufacturer of aircraft equipment. Tekhnodinamika’s products are installed on virtually every Russian airliner, cargo plane, and helicopter.
Defense technology holdings
Avtomatika is a Rostec-owned holding company that develops and produces information security systems tied to public security, cyber warfare, information security, and unmanned aerial vehicles.
Information Security Reform is a technology company within Rostec’s structure that, among other things, provides consulting on various information technology and communications-related subjects, and conducts advanced information technology training for Rostec employees.
Russian Electronics manufactures electronic components across more than 140 production organizations and research institutes. It is responsible for more than 50% of Russia’s electronic components output.
Shvabe is primarily engaged in the development and serial production of optical and laser systems and complexes. Shvabe unites several dozen industrial facilities and research centers across Russia, forming the core of Russia’s optical industry.
Kamaz is one of the world’s top 20 heavy-duty truck producers and a supplier of armored vehicles to Russia’s military. Kamaz general director and chairman Sergei Anatolyevich Kogogin was also designated and three Russia-based companies working for or with him: Zalog OOO, PFMK, and Alfa-Invest. These companies are engaged in equipment rentals and leasing, furniture and paper manufacturing, and financial activities, respectively.
RT-Tekhpriemka conducts quality control for aeronautical, space equipment, and dual-use technology production.
RT-Capital is engaged in debt and financial restructuring and the management of real estate.
RT-Inform implements trade and procurement activities of holding companies and organizations of Rostec.
RT-Project Technology conducts Rostec assets management.
RT-Business Development engages in asset management and direct investments in non-controlling interests of businesses in the natural resources, technology, and infrastructure industries.
State Flight Testing Center Named After VP Chkalov is the largest testing center of the Aerospace Forces of Russia.
Interregional Social Organization Union of Donbas Volunteers (UDV) is officially a 14,000-member organization largely composed of “veterans” of Russia’s war with Ukraine.
OFAC also designated 16 leading officials of the UDV, including its Russia- and Dubai-based chairman Alexander Yuryevich Boroday, the former self-proclaimed prime minister of the US-sanctioned Donetsk People’s Republic (DNR) and a member of the US-sanctioned state Duma of the federal assembly of the Russian Federation, and UDV executive director Andrei Yuryevich Pinchuk, the former head of the DNR’s security apparatus.
The full list of officials can be viewed at US Treasury Sanctions Nearly 100 Targets in Putin’s War Machine.
Other Concerns Sanctioned
RSB-Group is a private military company with close ties to Russia’s intelligence services. OFAC designated RSB-Group’s General Director, Oleg Anatolyevich Krinitsyn and under Krinitsyn’s control Security Organization RSB-Group, whose listed activities include that of a private security force.
The DNR and Luhansk People’s Republic (LNR) are being re-designated. Vitaliy Pavlovich Khotsenko, the newly appointed chairperson and previously an official in Russia’s Ministry of Industry and Trade, has been designated.
Six officials in the DNR and LNR governments have also been designated: Aleksandr Evgenyevich Ananchenko, the chairperson of the government of the DNR; Tatiana Viktorovna Pereverzeva, deputy chairperson of the DNR; Vladimir Nikolaevich Antonov), deputy chairperson of the DNR; Vladimir Vladimirovich Ezhikov, deputy chairperson of the DNR; Yuriy Nikolaevich Govtvin, deputy chairperson of the LNR; and Anna Yurievna Todorova deputy chairperson of the LNR.
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