The integration of the General Security of Military Information Agreement (GSOMIA) is the most significant demonstration of this bilateral relationship between the United States and other nations. The General Security Of Military Information Agreements (GSOMIA) is one of the four foundational agreements that the U.S. signs with allies and close partners to facilitate interoperability between militaries and sale of high end technology.
The GSOMIA also allows third-country to acquire high-end US-made military equipment through foreign military sale (FMS) and access defense article. The GSOMIA also allows buyers of US-made weapons to upgrade and maintain life cycle of military equipment.
The GSOMIA allows the sharing of classified information from the U.S. government and American companies with the Government of third-country and Defence Public Sector Undertakings (DPSU) but not with private companies. It helps to develop defense services of both the countries. For example, India signed GSOMIA with the United States in 2002. Japan and South Korean has GSOMIA agreement between both countries.
The Industrial Security Annex (ISA) to the US General Security of Military Information Agreement (GSOMIA) will provide a framework for exchange and protection of classified military information between the U.S. and third-country defense industries. Currently, under GSOMIA, such information is exchanged between the Government authorities of the two countries but not between private parties. It will enable greater industry-to-industry collaboration for co-production and co-development in the defence sector, in line with the GOI’s objective of foreign military sale and the defence sector.
Since 2016, the U.S. have executed a successful and popular programme for joint training and capacity building of African peacekeepers in Centre for UN Peacekeeping (CUNPK). Four such iterations have been held so far. They have now agreed expand this cooperation to capacity-building of UN peacekeepers from Indo-Pacific countries, based on demands from the countries concerned.
The participating countries in GSOMIA agreement, for example the US and another country to pledge significant support and actively cooperate with the US to counter terrorism and violent extremism, both work to prevent piracy in the Ocean. Both work to improve health security in Southeast Asia and Africa through global health security agendas. Both work to promote human rights. Both contribute to economic development around the world and both assist victims of conflict and natural disaster.
Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA)
The LEMOA stands for Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA) is a Logistics Support Agreement (LSA), which the U.S. has with several countries it has close military to military cooperation. It is also one of the three foundational agreements — as referred to by the U.S.
LEMOA gives access, to both countries, to designated military facilities on either side for the purpose of refueling and replenishment. The U.S. holds bilateral joint exercises with another countries during which payments are done each time to get supplies from another countries, which is a long and tedious process.
Under the new agreement, a mechanism will be instituted for book-keeping and payments and officials, who will act as nodal points of contact, will be designated on both sides.
Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA)
The Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA) agreement allows American security forces and civilian personnel of the U.S. Department of Defence (DoD), as well as U.S. contractors and their counterpart employees “who may be temporarily present in America or counterpart’s country in connection with ship visits, training, exercises, humanitarian activities, and other activities” will have “privileges, exemptions, and immunities” equivalent to those accorded to administrative and technical staff of a diplomatic mission. The ACSA allows both country pays for the utilities and consumption of any resources may have occurred in either countries.
All three agreement doesn’t bind any party to participate in a war and automatically be part of war. These agreements are foundational agreement for the US to share information, knowledge, facilitate replenishment and military equipment with third-party to safeguard the classified military technology, enhance cyber security and state secret. The both signatories are responsible to protect and maintain classified information. None of these agreement constitute any US troops presence in foreign soils.
The installation of encrypted communication systems on the U.S.-made aircraft is made possible by the signing of a Communications, Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA).
“COMCASA allows the U.S. military to transfer secure communications and data equipment to India. Prior to the conclusion of the agreement, the United States had to remove advanced communication equipment from all military platforms sold to India such as the P-8I Neptune,” I explained previously. “Additionally, the United States had to place less secure temporary systems on Indian units so the two sides could communicate during bilateral exercises.”
According to the Indian Navy source, the service has already operationalized COMCASA and has exchanged information with the U.S. military. COMCASA reportedly allows P-8I and P-8A Poseidon aircraft, the U.S. Navy variant of the aircraft, to share real-time operational intelligence, including a secure Common Tactical Picture.
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