TCG Anadolu: Turkish Navy’s Amphibious Assault Ship

The LPD is the biggest project of Amphibious War fighting road map of Turkish Navy declared in 2006. The long terms amphibious ship acquisition goals of Turkish Navy are following:

  • One LPDs
  • Two LST’s
  • 8 fast LCT’s
  • 27 AAV/AAAV’s

TCG Anadolu is based on Navatia’s Juan Carlos 1 design. She will be very similar to SPS Juan Carlos 1 in Spanish Navy and HMAS Adelaide and HMAS Canberra in Royal Australian Navy.

TCG Anadolu

Mission

The construction of eight LCT’s has been already started. The tender for the two LST’s has been awarded, the contract negotiations are continuing.

The potential uses for a large amphibious ships can be:

  • Force projection (the most obvious use)
  • Evacuation of combatants and non-combatants
  • Command ship for task force
  • Logistical supply platform during a humanitarian crisis or disaster
  • Mother-ship for small boat operations and helicopters
  • Mine warfare (as all large amphibious ships of Turkish Navy have mine laying capability)

Tender Process

The tender process for LPD has started in 2011 when UDI submitted the RfP. In May 2011, three Turkish shipyards, Deasan, RMK Marine and Sedef submitted their bids for RfP to design and build a LPD type ship. RMK Marine submitted their own design, Sedef teamed with Navantia and submitted a redesigned Juan Carlos 1. The most secretive bid was Deasan’s. The shipyard teamed with China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation which builds the Type 071 amphibious ships for PLA(N).

With this weeks announcement Sedef – Navantia partnership was selected for the largest warship, Turkish Navy will operate.

The details of are vague but according to the Twitter account of Navantia, the Spanish company will provide the engines, the turbine, the IPMS (Integrated Platform Management System) and LCM-1E landing craft.

Juan Carlos Design

The number of aircraft, helicopters, main battle tanks and other military vehicles depends on the mission profiles and on the types of the vehicles. In general she has 6 spots on the flight deck for a simultaneous operation of NH-90 size helicopters. This number decreases to 4 if large helicopters such as CH-47 Chinooks are operated.

The CIC is very specious compared to the CIC’s I have seen on various frigates. The CIC is dived in two one half is for maritime component the other half is for amphibious and air operations. There are large office spaces for the staff officers on the same level of the CIC. The direct access the CIC from these office space which makes going back and forth and easy walk.

Inside the CIC

The combat management system SCOMBA was developed by Navantia in house. Obviously were not informed about the sensors and the SCOMBA. But according the internet gossip, it is not without any problems.

When were walking and climbing up/down the stairs I have realized that the gangways and the bulkheads were wide. I do not want to compare my Lowepro Pro-Trekker 300 AW camera backpack to a marine infantryman’s rucksack but I had no difficulty in moving inside the ship with my backpack on my back.

Juan Carlos LHD can carry and deploy 4 LCMs thanks to its well deck Picture: Spanish Navy

he ship has a citadel for protection against NBC weapons and a sprinkler system for decontamination. One cannot fully close a ship that has so many elevators, doors and access hatches. Therefore I assume that the citadel is limited to the living and main working areas inside the ship.

The hangar / garage spaces appeared to me very large. This may be due to the fact that the ships was not fully loaded for this endurance cruise. The height of the hanger was sufficient for a mechanic to stay on a wing of a Harrier or to work on a helicopter like SH-3D.

The dock can be flooded in 90 minutes and emptied in same duration. The dock can hold 4 LCM’s. The gangway in the middle of the dock makes it easier for the marines to climb to the LCM’s on the second row but makes it impossible for any craft wider than a LCM to operate.

The officers berthing is comfortable with two officers sharing a stateroom. 4 to 6 petty officers share a stateroom. The seamen are accommodate in dozens. The officers and petty officers have their own WC in their rooms. The sailors share communal WC’s/baths. The marines stay 18 in a stateroom. In each officers cabin there is a PC for personal use. There are films and music on the shared on board LAN. Besides there is satellite TV, and phones to call home. I have seen vending machines. The sole galley of the ship is located in the middle of the eating area and is easily accessible.

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The below table with the information on the press release to make a comparison between the Spanish Juan Carlos, Australian Canberra-class and Turkish LPD, all based on the same Navantia design.

CanberraJuan CarlosLevent
Displacement (tons)27.50027.50019.000
Length (meters)230230200
Speed (knots)192120
Range (n. miles)9.0009.0007.000
Crew240295240
Juan Carlos Variants

The crew will be 190 sailors, 56 air crew, 50 medical staff, 200 command staff and up to 700 marines.

The LPD will be able to carry 13 MBT’s, 27 armored amphibious attack vessels, 6 armored personnel carriers and 33 truck in the garage bay.

The air component will consist of 4 at least 15 ton helicopters on the flight deck and 4 at least 15 ton helicopters or 3 UAV’s in the hangar.

For self-defence, the ship will have at least two MK-15 Phalanx CIWS and 3 or 4 remote-controlled weapon platforms such as Aselsan’s STAMP or STOP.

Aselsan’s STAMP or STOP

ECM and ESM systems, IR signature measurement systems, electro-optic sensors, torpedo defence systems will be among many subsystems provided by Turkish companies. The combat management system will be also indigenous and will be based on GENESİS CMS.

GENESİS CMS

There will have five MAN 16V32/40 engines each creating 7.680kW and propelling the ship up to 21 knots. The range is estimated to be 9.000 nautical miles.

The ship will have one Mk-49 launcher for Rolling Airframe Missile, 2 Mk-15 Phalanx Block 1B CIWS, 5 Stabilized Gun platforms probably armed with 25mm gun for self-defence.

The ship could carry 6 F-35B Lightning II (Turkey is evicted from F-35 programme, Turkey will not receive F-35B) planes, 4 T-129 ATAK attack helicopters, 8 cargo helicopters, 2 S-70B Seahawk helicopters and 2 UAVs.

The contract signing ceremony for the LPD was the highlight of the IDEF 2015 was from the maritime point of view the.

The design is based on Spanish shipyard Navantia’s Juan Carlos 1 LPD and will be very similar to the Spanish and Australian ships. According to Under-secretariat for Defence Industries press release the ship is scheduled to be commissioned in 2021. The ship will be able to operate 60 days on sea, without replenishment.

The exact plane and helicopter load is not published but Juan Carlos design has capacity for 11 medium class helicopters and up to 7 Harrier type planes. Nobody is talking it openly yet, but it is highly possible that the S/VTOL version of F-35 may be acquired in the future to be used on this ship. Turkey is a member of the F-35 alliance and wants to buy at least 100 planes of the land based version.

For self-defence, the ship will have at least two MK-15 Phalanx CIWS and 3 or 4 remote-controlled weapon platforms  such as Aselsan’s STAMP or STOP.

ECM and ESM systems, IR signature measurement systems, electro-optic sensors, torpedo defence systems will be among many subsystems provided by Turkish companies. The combat management system will be also indigenous and will be based on GENESİS CMS.

With the signing of the contract for the LPD, Turkey Navy has entered to the Dreadnought Owners Club of the 21. Century. The large amphibious ships with docking and flight capability are the new Dreadnoughts of our era.

The first project to start according to this road map was procurement of 8 LCT’s. This project officially started in 2009 with the signing of the contract and ended in 2014 with the commissioning of 8 LCT’s into Turkish Navy.

The procurement of the LST’s was the second project. For the LST’s UDI submitted a Request for Proposal. on May 2008. On 6 January 2010 ADİK shipyard was declared as the winner of the bid. A contract for the construction of two new LST’s was signed between Ministry of Defence and ADİK in 2011. The first ship was to be delivered in 48 months after the signing of the contract.

The tender process for LPD has started in 2011 when UDI submitted the RfP. In May 2011, three Turkish shipyards, Deasan, RMK Marine and Sedef submitted their bids for RfP to design and build a LPD type ship. RMK Marine submitted its own design, Sedef teamed with Navantia and submitted a redesigned Juan Carlos 1.

On 21 November 2019, Turkish Defense Industry Minister Prof. Dr. İsmail Demir announced that TCG Anadolu would enter service one year ahead of schedule at the end 2020, instead of 2021.

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